Un total de 3 pages ont été trouvées avec le mot clé Motivation.

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Introduce courses and subjects (or training)

Introducing your courses, training or subject matter is important even though it may sometimes seem unnecessary. The idea is to allow the learners to grasp the usefulness of these sessions that he will follow and to explain to them how the sessions will take place. This motivates the learners and improves their posture in front of the courses that will follow.

Introduce courses and subjects (or training)

Group size : Small group (4-5 persons), Group (10-15 persons), Classroom (20-30 persons), Amphitheater, large group

Modality : Presential

Duration of the teaching method : In a session, An entire session

Target Audience : Students, Professionals in training

Course Type : Course

Preparation time :1h for the first time

Author and persons who made changes : No author

Why am I using this technique?

For my learners...

In an educational relationship it is important that everyone's place and role are clearly defined. This lays the foundation for the relationship within the group. That is what this introduction allows. It also allows the learner to question himself about his presence in this course, about what the course will bring him. That way he'll be more involved, more motivated.

It also has a small icebreaker side thanks to the interactions.

For me, teacher or trainer...

It allows to see a little the group that there is opposite, to know its expectations but also its a priori about the matter. And once again to have defined the role of each one and to have explained to the learners the pedagogical approach is important.

Framework and steps / Instructions

The framework

This introduction can only be useful if the teacher will have other courses with the same group, on the same topic/subject. This lends itself well to year-round (or almost year-round) courses. For example, a modern language course (English). The introduction must then be given during the very first class with the learners.

The preparation

There is no particular material, it depends on the form in which you want to make your introduction. You can use nothing, use a slide show (you need a projector and the appropriate cable), use a board, use flip charts, etc....

The process

Before embarking on this introduction, you should of course introduce yourself, and why not also do an icebreaker with the group, or just a tour of the first names (if the size of the group allows it).

THE STEPS

If the group is relatively small, we can start by asking everyone to complete these 3 sentences: during class I would like..., I would not like..., at the end of all classes I want... And everyone gives their answers in turn. If the group is too large, there are possible alternatives (see Variants).

Then we will ask the learners 3 introspective questions:

  • What am I doing here? (when I could be in my bed)
  • What's the point of me attending this class?
  • What can a teacher do? (while I have my computer and internet access).

We ask the first question. The group of learners is then asked for an initial response. If no one is speaking, do not hesitate to name someone. Then the teacher also provides prepared answers. This can take several forms: a simple answer, anecdotes or more playful like a quiz to draw attention to certain points, ... Then with a small transitional sentence we go to the second question and we start again, and we do the same thing with the third question.

  • Question one: What am I doing here?

It is a question of showing the interest of such a subject/course for the learner's personal pleasure/general culture/career path.

  • Question two: What do I need it for?

In continuity with the usefulness of the subject/courses for the learner's professional career, it is necessary to highlight the importance of the knowledge/know-how/being-knowledge that the learner will acquire, how it will be useful to him, how it is already useful to others who have made the same career path.

  • Question three: Why have a teacher?

It is true that new technologies, the Internet in particular, can call into question its usefulness, yet it is rarely questioned and the role of a teacher is rarely defined, as if it were self-evident. This question allows you to set things straight and to introduce the logic and the pedagogical method that will be used throughout the course.

AND AFTER

For the following courses, it is important to follow the pedagogy announced during this introduction, but this is quite obvious.

Evaluation

The impact on learners is difficult to assess. It is up to you, the teacher, to feel if the posture that the learners then take in front of the teaching is the one sought or not. If not, perhaps the introduction should be repeated a little.

Discussing this introduction with the learners, what they thought, if they have any comments,... can also be interesting.

Variants

For the first part with the 3 questions (during the course I would like, ...), if the group of learners is large, can be done differently (otherwise it would take too long). It all depends on what you, the teacher, want to do with it. If the question is purely rhetorical (your curriculum and pedagogy are already established and you will not change them) then instead of asking everyone to answer the question, simply ask a small number of learners, volunteers or randomly selected, to answer it. If you really want to have a clear view of the group's expectations, you can ask them to write their answer on a sheet of paper that you will collect. You can also do both: have them answer on paper and then interview a few learners, but it takes a little longer.

This method can also be used to introduce training. The idea is then to make learners understand the interest of the training (interesting if they do it by obligation) and to explain the pedagogy that will be used during this training time. The detailed training programme can also be presented at the end of the introduction.

Points of vigilance

We must try to anticipate the type of response that learners can give to the questions asked, in order to be ready to bounce back on them. But you also have to be prepared for unexpected answers. And we must also be able to continue if learners do not give the expected answers.

It is necessary to be vigilant with the subjects or supports used to bring its answers. If one of them creates a blockage in one or more learners, they will not participate. It can even block the dynamics of the whole group. And the subjects which block depend on the public, it is necessary to know how to adapt to this one.

What if it doesn't work?

If you use a support, in particular a slide show or other video-projected tool, you are not safe from a technical problem. Then you have to find a solution: either you manage to solve the technical problem, or you do your introduction without support. It is of course also possible not to do the introduction but it would be a shame because it is not something that can be saved for the next course.

Another problem may come from the group: if learners do not know each other and are not comfortable they may have difficulty speaking. Sometimes this is not disturbing, it does not mean that they do not think about the issue in their head. But if this blocks the dynamics of the presentation, then the solution is to randomly assign a learner to respond.


Testimonials

For me the objective of this course is to create group dynamics, to create motivation. It is also about discussing the educational contract between me and the group. I have always had only positive feedback.

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Introduire ses cours et sa matière (ou une formation)

Introduire ses cours, sa formation ou sa matière est important même si cela peut sembler inutile parfois. L'idée est de permettre aux apprenants de saisir l’utilité de ces séances qu’il va suivre et de leur expliquer comment les séances vont se dérouler. Cela permet de motiver les apprenants et d’améliorer leur posture face aux cours qui vont suivre.

Introduire ses cours et sa matière (ou une formation)

Taille du groupe : Petit groupe (4-5 personnes), Groupe (10-15 personnes), Salle de cours (20-30 personnes), Amphithéâtre, grand groupe

Modalité : Présentiel

Durée de la méthode pédagogique : Dans une séance, Une séance entière

Type de savoir/Connaissance développée : Savoir-être/Attitude

Public visé : Etudiants, Professionnels en formation

Type de cours : Cours

Temps de préparation :1h la première fois

Auteur : Pas d'auteur

Pourquoi j'utilise cette technique ?

Pour mes apprenants

Dans une relation pédagogique il est important que la place et le rôle de chacun soient clairement définis. Cela pose les bases de la relation au sein du groupe. C’est ce que permet cette introduction. Elle permet aussi d’amener l’apprenant à se questionner sur sa présence dans ce cours, sur ce que le cours va lui apporter. Ainsi il sera plus impliqué, plus motivé.

Cela a aussi un petit côté brise-glace grâces aux interactions.

Pour moi enseignant formateur :

Cela permet de voir un peu le groupe qu'il y a en face, de connaître ses attentes mais aussi ses a priori à propos de la matière. Et une fois encore avoir défini le rôle de chacun et avoir expliqué aux apprenants la démarche pédagogique est important.

Cadre et étapes / Consignes / Instructions

Le cadre :

Cette introduction ne peut être utile que si l'enseignant va avoir d'autres cours avec ce même groupe, sur le même sujet/la même matière. Cela se prête bien à des cours qui se font sur toute l'année (ou presque). Par exemple, un cours de langue vivante (anglais). Il faut alors faire l'introduction lors du tout premier cours avec les apprenants.

Préparation:

Il n'y a pas de matériel particulier, cela dépend de la forme sous laquelle vous voulez faire votre introduction. Vous pouvez ne rien utiliser, utiliser un diaporama (il faut alors un vidéo-projecteur et le câble approprié), utiliser un tableau, utiliser des paperboard, … etc.

Déroulement

Avant de se lancer dans cette introduction, il faut bien sûr se présenter, et pourquoi ne pas aussi faire un brise-glace avec le groupe, ou juste un tour des prénoms (si la taille du groupe le permet).

LES ÉTAPES

Si le groupe est de relativement petite taille, on peut commencer par demander à tout le monde de compléter ces 3 phrases: pendant les cours j'aimerais …, je n'aimerais pas trop ..., à la fin de tous les cours je veux … Et chacun donne ses réponses tour à tour. Si le groupe est trop grand, il y a des alternatives possibles (cf Variantes).

Puis on va poser 3 questions introspectives aux apprenants:

  • Qu’est-ce que je (l’apprenant) fais là ? (alors que je pourrais être dans mon lit)
  • A quoi ça me sert d’assister à ce cours ?
  • A quoi peut servir un enseignant ? (alors que j’ai mon ordinateur et accès à internet).

On pose la première question. On demande ensuite au groupe d’apprenants un début de réponse. Si personne ne prend la parole, ne pas hésiter à désigner quelqu'un. Puis l'enseignant apporte lui aussi des éléments de réponse préparés à l’avance. Cela peut-être sous plusieurs formes: une réponse simple, des anecdotes ou plus ludique comme un quiz pour attirer l'attention sur certains points, … Puis avec une petite phrase de transition on passe à la deuxième question et on recommence, et on refait la même chose avec la troisième question.

  • Première question : Qu'est-ce que je fais là ?

Il s’agit de montrer l'intérêt d'une telle matière/de tels cours pour le plaisir personnel de l'apprenant/sa culture générale/son parcours professionnel.

  • Deuxième question : A quoi ça me sert ?

En continuité avec l'utilité de la matière/des cours pour le parcours professionnel de l'apprenant, il faut mettre en évidence l'importance des connaissances/savoirs-faire/ savoirs-être que l'apprenant va acquérir, en quoi cela va lui être utile, en quoi cela est déjà utile à d'autres qui ont fait le même parcours.

  • Troisième question : A quoi bon avoir un enseignant ?

Il est vrai que les nouvelles technologies, internet en particulier peuvent remettre en question son utilité et pourtant elle est très peu questionnée et le rôle d’un enseignant est rarement défini, comme si c'était une évidence. Cette question permet de remettre clairement les choses à plat et d’introduire la logique et la méthode pédagogique qui sera utilisée tout au long des cours.

ET APRÈS

Pour les cours suivants, il est important de suivre la pédagogie annoncée durant cette introduction, mais cela est assez évident.

Evaluation

L'impact sur les apprenants est difficile à apprécier. C'est à vous, enseignant de sentir si la posture que prennent ensuite les apprenants face à l'enseignement est celle recherchée ou non. Dans le cas contraire, il faut peut-être reprendre un peu l’introduction.

Discuter avec les apprenants de cette introduction, ce qu'ils en ont pensé, s'ils ont des remarques, … peut être intéressant également.

Variantes :

Pour la première partie avec les 3 questions (pendant les cours j’aimerai, …), si le groupe d'apprenants est important, peut être faite autrement (sinon cela prendrait trop de temps). Tout dépend de ce que vous, enseignant, souhaitez en faire. Si la question est purement rhétorique (votre programme et votre pédagogie sont déjà établis et vous ne les changerez pas) alors au lieu de demander à tout le monde de répondre à la question il suffit de demander à un petit nombre d'apprenants, volontaires ou désignés au hasard d’y répondre. Si vous souhaitez réellement avoir une vision nette des attentes du groupe, vous pouvez leur demander d'écrire leur réponse sur une feuille que vous ramasserez. Vous pouvez aussi faire les deux: leur faire répondre sur un papier puis interroger quelques apprenants, mais cela prend un peu plus de temps.

Cette méthode peut aussi être utilisée en introduction d'une formation. L'idée est alors de faire comprendre aux apprenants l'intérêt de la formation (intéressant s'ils la font par obligation) et de leur expliquer la pédagogie qui va être utilisée durant ce temps de formation. Le programme détaillé de la formation peut aussi être présenté à la fin de l'introduction.


Points de vigilance :

Il faut essayer d'anticiper le type de réponse que peuvent donner les apprenants aux questions posées, pour être prêt à rebondir dessus. Mais il faut aussi être prêt à des réponses inattendues. Et il faut aussi être capable de continuer si les apprenants ne donnent pas les réponses attendues.

Il faut être vigilant avec les sujets ou supports utilisés pour amener ses réponses. Si l'un d'eux crée un blocage chez un ou plusieurs apprenants, il(s) ne participeront pas. Cela peut même bloquer la dynamique de tout le groupe. Et les sujets qui bloquent dépendent du public, il faut savoir s'adapter à celui-ci.

Et si ca ne marche pas ?

Si vous utilisez un support, en particulier un diaporama ou autre outil vidéo-projeté, vous n'êtes pas à l’abri d'un problème technique. Il faut alors trouver une solution: soit vous arrivez à régler le problème technique, soit vous faites votre introduction sans le support. Il est bien sûr possible aussi de ne pas faire l'introduction mais ce serait bien dommage car ce n'est pas quelque chose qu'on peut garder pour le cours suivant.

Un autre problème peut venir du groupe: si les apprenants ne se connaissent pas et ne sont pas à l'aise ils peuvent avoir du mal à prendre la parole. Parfois cela n'est pas dérangeant, cela ne veut pas dire qu'ils ne réfléchissent pas à la question dans leur tête. Mais si cela bloque la dynamique de la présentation, la solution est alors de désigner un apprenant au hasard pour qu'il réponde.


Témoignages

Pour moi l'objectif de ce cours c'est créer une dynamique de groupe, créer une motivation. Il s'agit aussi de discuter du contrat pédagogique entre moi et le groupe. [...] Je n'ai toujours eu que des retours positifs.

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Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

We currently use Project-based Learning within a course entitled “Designing New Crops for the Future”, open to Montpellier SupAgro Master 1 students and Erasmus students. 

The project includes some scientific knowledge that the student needs to understand, learn, assimilate and reuse. Moreover, it  includes a specific problem to be solved through a careful planning and project execution. Personal and group guidance is applied to solve any challenge arising during the project.

Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

Resources produced as a result of a project: Escapade

Group size : Small group (4-5 persons)

Modality : Presential

Duration of the teaching method : Education or training unit

Special equipment : small meeting areas, flipcharts, collaborative writing tools, tutorials and guidelines

Type of knowledge developed : Knowledge, Know-how, Social skills

Target Audience : Students, Professionals in training, Particularly suitable for heterogeneous groups, Particularly suitable for groups with cultural heterogeneity

Course Type : Tutorials (TD), Course, Practical work (TP)

Preparation time :three weeks

Author and persons who made changes : Dominique This (assistant professor), Florian Fort (assistant professor), Isabel Martin Grande (pedagogic engineer)

Why am I using this technique?

For my learners...

For me, teacher or trainer...

To improving motivational dynamics of students and as a result facilitates classroom attendance and commitment of the learners.

By mobilizing knowledge  presented during lectures to a concrete case, students can anchor more strongly  these knowledge and learn them, which is highly satisfactory for a teacher.   

Interpersonal relations with the students and research colleagues are totally different than the possibilities offered by regular lectures. I feel more like a facilitator and an animator, providing guidance, setting goals and tracking progresses rather than delivering knowledge.

As a researcher, I can share my knowledge on a particular production system, a crop or a crop protection system. I can also share my enthusiasm for plant sciences  and identify future candidate for internships or jobs. I am also building strong partnerships with higher education staff.

Framework and steps / Instructions

The framework

The teaching sequence is conceived over four weeks, each week presenting a different item, moving the project forward; In our case:

- Analyzing and predicting the effect of global changes on cropping systems and agriculture,

- Defining crop ideotypes or protection systems adapted to constraints and innovative cropping systems,

- Finding relevant methods to reach this ideotype,

- Thinking about societal and legislative challenges to be encountered.

Each project is supported by a research expert and piloted by academic staff. Some examples of projects conducted during this course are:

- “Breeding transplanted sorghum for waterlogged conditions in the extreme north of Cameroon: a participatory plant breeding approach” (by John Barth, Pauline Depoorter, Paul Duneaux and Princia Nakombo, mentored by Abdouo Aziz Saidou, CIRAD)

- “Integrated management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in European Hazelnut Orchards”, by Julia Wen, Kelvin Sage, Matheus Montrazi, Quentin Mayer, mentored by Claude Bon, USDA)

The whole course is given in English, in order to increase its international dimension. Few students and teachers are native-English speakers, therefore a minimal B1 level and clear goodwill are requested. English course are embedded within this teaching sequence, helping students encountering difficulties with the written and oral presentations.

The student is an actor in his or her learning they build their knowledge through experience within a prospective or fictive project (the development of a new cultivar, cropping system or integrated crop protection system consistent with global changes, natural resource management and innovative or traditional cropping systems).

The teacher is a facilitator, motivator and an evaluator, providing to students the latest advances within plant sciences, planning out pedagogic evaluations,  scheduling learning activities, interacting with scientific experts and involving them in in the learning process.

The research expert act as a mentor who facilitate the functioning  of the project-based approach, guiding the scientific development of the project through its expertise on the subject (crop production, cultivar development, protection system, biocontrol…), stimulating student’s motivation, evaluating the scientific relevance of the project with teachers.

The preparation

Volunteer researchers need to be identified well in advance. Their number depend on the class size (no more than 4 students per project is suitable). Availability of all pedagogic staff needs also to be checked well in advance, because of the tight schedule and precise timing of the teaching session.

Tutors need to be prepared in advance to this particular teaching activity. During a two-hours meeting, the process of project-based learning is presented, and proper attitude is discussed with them through lively activities (we want to avoid over-mentoring or over-specified projects). A last briefing of the whole pedagogic team before the course start will ensure commitment of all people.

A modular room needs to be booked for the total duration of the course (including a coffee corner…).

Specific learning material (on-line resources, student booklet, evaluation grids, progress reports model, report model, collaborative writing space) need to be prepared or updated.

The process

Because students do not know each other, an initial ice-breaker (1hour) is organized just after the initial presentation and guidelines of the course. This allows everyone to meet and initiate communication in English. Research experts then present their competences and some ideas about the project framework  (10 minutes may be sufficient for that), allowing students to choose their group as much as possible, based on their professional and personal objectives.

No more than 12 hours of lectures / visits / practical activities are given every week (in relation with the item of the week), prioritizing students’ groups workshops. We ask students to write at least three “learning points” after each lecture (to be collected each week). Short innovative teaching activities are proposed each Friday in order to remobilize academic lessons.

After discussing and defining their project, students will conduct it autonomously and deliver their product (a 12-pages report and an oral presentation) only at the very end of the course. Anyway, they are encouraged to start writing parts of their project related to each item regularly.

Each Friday, the group meets its project tutor for a debriefing time and update of the project, but other contacts through Email or visits are encouraged. Before this weekly meeting, the group write a progress report and send it to the tutor and academic supervisor.

At each time, the academic staff is present in the classroom in order to answer to any scientific / organizational question that may arise. A coffee break is highly appreciated during this Friday morning session.

Evaluation

A written report and oral defense of the project  (in front of the classmates, teachers and tutors) are used to evaluate knowledge acquisition.

An evaluation grid is provided, with an emphasis on

- project management (methodology and functioning of the group),

- quality of the students’ proposal (an accurate, operational and satisfactory answer in relation to the objectives; students’ creative force and critical mind), 

- appropriation of the knowledge from the lecture and the literature,
- quality of the presentation (a structured, logical, synthetic and complete written report; a clear speech; a judicious  selection of features exposed and relevant and accurate answers to the questions).

The whole group is accountable for this product, but in some cases a modulation of marks will be proposed, in order to acknowledge an outstanding student’s behavior or endorse the lack of involvement of a particular student. In addition the group functioning is subject to self-evaluation and to the tutors’ evaluation.

A satisfaction survey is conducted on-line at the end of the course.

Variants

A variant could be considered to take into account the lack of local academic competences (on-line material instead of lectures, regular chats with students of the academic supervisor), or lack of research specialists locally (video-meetings).

Points of vigilance

This pedagogic method involves a higher commitment  of students all along the course period. It also implies a strong involvement of the academic leader and trustworthy relationship between all actors. No student should be left alone and the teacher should take specific care of group management. The low English level of some students can also be a threat. A B2 level would be more appropriate.

What if it doesn't work?

Communication and kindness can solve many issues.


Testimonials

Users Testimonials :

This course is my favorite one. I enjoy the gentle interaction with students from all around the world and with my colleagues from Agropolis research community.

The subject (dealing with the future of Agriculture) and the concept of multidisciplinary brainstorming, although not going too far into scientific content, is initiating further in depth developments at the M2 level, while improving professional and personal skills of students.

Dominique This (assistant professor)

Learners Testimonials :

“This course open my mind about concepts, technique, and regulation to design new crop”

“New updated experiments and articles gives us a great view for what we are facing and will be face in the future”

“My favorite moment: Working on the project and feeling independent for exploring the subject, giving my own perspectives and choosing the approach with my team.”

“I learnt a lot of things on plant breeding and genetics and improved a lot in group working”

Gesang Pratyadhiraksana (from Indonesia); Helia Kiani (from Iran); Renata Oliveira Silva (from Brazil); Begona Sanchez-Giron Carnicero (from Spain)

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