Un total de 3 pages ont été trouvées avec le mot clé Autonomy.


Pedagogy by project

Want to develop practical skills with your learners?

To initiate in them the spirit of a project developer?

Is autonomy in your work a central value for you to transmit to them?

Test the pedagogy by project and you will no longer have to doubt the interest of your courses.

Pedagogy by project

Group size : Group (10-15 persons), Classroom (20-30 persons)

Modality : Presential, Hybrid, Distancial

Duration of the teaching method : In a session, Education or training unit

Special equipment : TD Room

Type of knowledge developed : Knowledge, Know-how, Social skills

Target Audience : Students, Professionals in training, Particularly suitable for heterogeneous groups, Particularly suitable for groups with cultural heterogeneity, Particularly suitable for mixed groups

Course Type : Tutorials (TD)

Preparation time :Long project search phase; little preparation required for TOD sessions; long correction phase

Author and persons who made changes : Bruno Tisseyre

Why am I using this technique?

For my learners...

  • Allows to simulate a future mission in relation with the learner's training.
  • Applies knowledge on a specific theme.
  • Develops professionalizing skills.
  • Strengthens the ability to work in groups and independently.
  • Allows contact with the professional environment.
  • Allows to homogenize the level of knowledge of a heterogeneous group by focusing only on the knowledge necessary to solve the problem.

For me, teacher or trainer...

  • After the project and sponsor research phase.
  • Little preparation required during TD sessions.
  • Generally improves group dynamics and listening. Avoid the boredom of repeating the same course every year.

Framework and steps / Instructions

The preparation

A sufficiently large space in relation to the group is necessary to allow everyone to express themselves without disturbing each other's work.

Students' schedules must be thoughtful to allow sufficient time for independent work. The TD sessions must be regular to allow students to answer any questions they may have.

The process

  1. Introductory phase (2 to 3 hours): A TP session allowing the presentation of the project with a sponsor, the organization of the different work phases and the evaluation method. The teacher then accompanies the students in reformulating the problem and clarifies the preliminary questions to the project. The teacher provides bibliographic resources related to the project.
  2. Work phase: Learners work independently in groups of 4 to 5. Regular communication with the teacher for the preparation of clarification sessions on possible theoretical blockages.
  3. End of projects (2 to 3 hours): Sessions with all groups to review the knowledge acquired during the projects.


The evaluation generally focuses on the deliverables at the end of the project.

Several deliverables are possible depending on the type of project (written document, oral presentation to the sponsor or a professional.


Many adaptations are possible according to the importance of the project (duration, technical ambitions, etc.)

Points of vigilance

Group monitoring and facilitation to maintain collective momentum and interest throughout the project.

What if it doesn't work?

There is always knowledge acquired (as with classical teaching).


When you address a group of students you explain in a way -yours- and there are many other ways to explain it.

Students don't prefer the same ones. Forming groups of students allows one to understand the teacher's vision and explain it again.

This allows the student to ensure that he or she has understood and for others to understand. It's a comfort for the teacher. If the students discuss something else, if there is noise, it doesn't matter.

The percentage of learners who complete the TD is disproportionate.

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Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

We currently use Project-based Learning within a course entitled “Designing New Crops for the Future”, open to Montpellier SupAgro Master 1 students and Erasmus students. 

The project includes some scientific knowledge that the student needs to understand, learn, assimilate and reuse. Moreover, it  includes a specific problem to be solved through a careful planning and project execution. Personal and group guidance is applied to solve any challenge arising during the project.

Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

Resources produced as a result of a project: Escapade

Group size : Small group (4-5 persons)

Modality : Presential

Duration of the teaching method : Education or training unit

Special equipment : small meeting areas, flipcharts, collaborative writing tools, tutorials and guidelines

Type of knowledge developed : Knowledge, Know-how, Social skills

Target Audience : Students, Professionals in training, Particularly suitable for heterogeneous groups, Particularly suitable for groups with cultural heterogeneity

Course Type : Tutorials (TD), Course, Practical work (TP)

Preparation time :three weeks

Author and persons who made changes : Dominique This (assistant professor), Florian Fort (assistant professor), Isabel Martin Grande (pedagogic engineer)

Why am I using this technique?

For my learners... Gesang Pratyadhiraksana (from Indonesia); Helia Kiani (from Iran); Renata Oliveira Silva (from Brazil); Begona Sanchez-Giron Carnicero (from Spain)

For me, teacher or trainer...

To improving motivational dynamics of students and as a result facilitates classroom attendance and commitment of the learners.

By mobilizing knowledge  presented during lectures to a concrete case, students can anchor more strongly  these knowledge and learn them, which is highly satisfactory for a teacher.   

Interpersonal relations with the students and research colleagues are totally different than the possibilities offered by regular lectures. I feel more like a facilitator and an animator, providing guidance, setting goals and tracking progresses rather than delivering knowledge.

As a researcher, I can share my knowledge on a particular production system, a crop or a crop protection system. I can also share my enthusiasm for plant sciences  and identify future candidate for internships or jobs. I am also building strong partnerships with higher education staff.

Framework and steps / Instructions

The framework

The teaching sequence is conceived over four weeks, each week presenting a different item, moving the project forward; In our case:

- Analyzing and predicting the effect of global changes on cropping systems and agriculture,

- Defining crop ideotypes or protection systems adapted to constraints and innovative cropping systems,

- Finding relevant methods to reach this ideotype,

- Thinking about societal and legislative challenges to be encountered.

Each project is supported by a research expert and piloted by academic staff. Some examples of projects conducted during this course are:

- “Breeding transplanted sorghum for waterlogged conditions in the extreme north of Cameroon: a participatory plant breeding approach” (by John Barth, Pauline Depoorter, Paul Duneaux and Princia Nakombo, mentored by Abdouo Aziz Saidou, CIRAD)

- “Integrated management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in European Hazelnut Orchards”, by Julia Wen, Kelvin Sage, Matheus Montrazi, Quentin Mayer, mentored by Claude Bon, USDA)

The whole course is given in English, in order to increase its international dimension. Few students and teachers are native-English speakers, therefore a minimal B1 level and clear goodwill are requested. English course are embedded within this teaching sequence, helping students encountering difficulties with the written and oral presentations.

The student is an actor in his or her learning they build their knowledge through experience within a prospective or fictive project (the development of a new cultivar, cropping system or integrated crop protection system consistent with global changes, natural resource management and innovative or traditional cropping systems).

The teacher is a facilitator, motivator and an evaluator, providing to students the latest advances within plant sciences, planning out pedagogic evaluations,  scheduling learning activities, interacting with scientific experts and involving them in in the learning process.

The research expert act as a mentor who facilitate the functioning  of the project-based approach, guiding the scientific development of the project through its expertise on the subject (crop production, cultivar development, protection system, biocontrol…), stimulating student’s motivation, evaluating the scientific relevance of the project with teachers.

The preparation

Volunteer researchers need to be identified well in advance. Their number depend on the class size (no more than 4 students per project is suitable). Availability of all pedagogic staff needs also to be checked well in advance, because of the tight schedule and precise timing of the teaching session.

Tutors need to be prepared in advance to this particular teaching activity. During a two-hours meeting, the process of project-based learning is presented, and proper attitude is discussed with them through lively activities (we want to avoid over-mentoring or over-specified projects). A last briefing of the whole pedagogic team before the course start will ensure commitment of all people.

A modular room needs to be booked for the total duration of the course (including a coffee corner…).

Specific learning material (on-line resources, student booklet, evaluation grids, progress reports model, report model, collaborative writing space) need to be prepared or updated.

The process

Because students do not know each other, an initial ice-breaker (1hour) is organized just after the initial presentation and guidelines of the course. This allows everyone to meet and initiate communication in English. Research experts then present their competences and some ideas about the project framework  (10 minutes may be sufficient for that), allowing students to choose their group as much as possible, based on their professional and personal objectives.

No more than 12 hours of lectures / visits / practical activities are given every week (in relation with the item of the week), prioritizing students’ groups workshops. We ask students to write at least three “learning points” after each lecture (to be collected each week). Short innovative teaching activities are proposed each Friday in order to remobilize academic lessons.

After discussing and defining their project, students will conduct it autonomously and deliver their product (a 12-pages report and an oral presentation) only at the very end of the course. Anyway, they are encouraged to start writing parts of their project related to each item regularly.

Each Friday, the group meets its project tutor for a debriefing time and update of the project, but other contacts through Email or visits are encouraged. Before this weekly meeting, the group write a progress report and send it to the tutor and academic supervisor.

At each time, the academic staff is present in the classroom in order to answer to any scientific / organizational question that may arise. A coffee break is highly appreciated during this Friday morning session.


A written report and oral defense of the project  (in front of the classmates, teachers and tutors) are used to evaluate knowledge acquisition.

An evaluation grid is provided, with an emphasis on

- project management (methodology and functioning of the group),

- quality of the students’ proposal (an accurate, operational and satisfactory answer in relation to the objectives; students’ creative force and critical mind), 

- appropriation of the knowledge from the lecture and the literature,
- quality of the presentation (a structured, logical, synthetic and complete written report; a clear speech; a judicious  selection of features exposed and relevant and accurate answers to the questions).

The whole group is accountable for this product, but in some cases a modulation of marks will be proposed, in order to acknowledge an outstanding student’s behavior or endorse the lack of involvement of a particular student. In addition the group functioning is subject to self-evaluation and to the tutors’ evaluation.

A satisfaction survey is conducted on-line at the end of the course.


A variant could be considered to take into account the lack of local academic competences (on-line material instead of lectures, regular chats with students of the academic supervisor), or lack of research specialists locally (video-meetings).

Points of vigilance

This pedagogic method involves a higher commitment  of students all along the course period. It also implies a strong involvement of the academic leader and trustworthy relationship between all actors. No student should be left alone and the teacher should take specific care of group management. The low English level of some students can also be a threat. A B2 level would be more appropriate.

What if it doesn't work?

Communication and kindness can solve many issues.


Users Testimonials :

This course is my favorite one. I enjoy the gentle interaction with students from all around the world and with my colleagues from Agropolis research community.

The subject (dealing with the future of Agriculture) and the concept of multidisciplinary brainstorming, although not going too far into scientific content, is initiating further in depth developments at the M2 level, while improving professional and personal skills of students.

Dominique This (assistant professor)

Learners Testimonials :

“This course open my mind about concepts, technique, and regulation to design new crop”

“New updated experiments and articles gives us a great view for what we are facing and will be face in the future”

“My favorite moment: Working on the project and feeling independent for exploring the subject, giving my own perspectives and choosing the approach with my team.”

“I learnt a lot of things on plant breeding and genetics and improved a lot in group working”

Gesang Pratyadhiraksana (from Indonesia); Helia Kiani (from Iran); Renata Oliveira Silva (from Brazil); Begona Sanchez-Giron Carnicero (from Spain)

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Simulation of a real project: notifications concerning releases of genetically modified higher plants

Simulation of a real project: notifications concerning releases of genetically modified higher plants

This method is a methodological strategy of teaching and learning in which students carry out a real project applying the skills and knowledge acquired during the formative process.

Therefore, students simulate a real solicitation by completing the information required in notifications concerning releases of genetically modified higher plants (gymnospermae and angiospermae), which includes information relating to recipient or parental plants, the genetic modification, the genetically modified plant, etc.

Simulation of a real project: notifications concerning releases of genetically modified higher plants

Resources produced as a result of a project: Escapade

Group size : Classroom (20-30 persons)

Modality : Hybrid

Duration of the teaching method : An entire session

Special equipment : Computers with internet connection

Type of knowledge developed : Knowledge, Know-how

Target Audience : Students

Course Type : Practical work (TP)

Preparation time :2 hours

Author and persons who made changes : Estela Gimenez, Patricia Giraldo, Ana Moliner and Soledad Sacristan

Why am I using this technique?

For me, teacher or trainer...

The method allows the teacher to know if students understood genetic engineering techniques, such as genetic transformation in plants, plasmid design, in vitro culture techniques, etc., previously learned. Additionally, this activity initiates the applicable legislation, which includes authorisation, registration, public consultations, traceability and labelling, transboundary movements, etc., that will be posteriorly taught.

This activity helps me to reinforce the knowledge explained in theoretical classes, amplifying it and relating it to real situations. I can also refer to this experience in subsequent theoretical classes, because a real experience always combines many different concepts.


Framework and steps / Instructions

The framework

    When this workshop is given, students must have previously learnt lessons related with genetic engineering (plasmid design, genetic transformation methods, in vitro culture techniques, genetic editing, etc.). Students must understand that in order to grow GMOs or to market food and feed, derived products or GMOs, the crops must be authorized by the competent authorities, according to international, European and national laws.

    Therefore, we mimic in a real situation of request for authorization of deliberate release of a genetically modified higher plant.

The preparation

    The teacher must prepare computers with Internet access for each student.

    The teacher must know the legislation about GMOs and the web page used to develop the activity.

The process

Students play the role of employees in an international agritech company, which is developing GM plants. To evaluate the safety of these plants, the company needs to submit the request form for authorization of deliberate release of a genetically modified higher plants.

In order to be able to carry out the authorization, students are led in the UE web page of GMOs and all tabs (legislation, authorization, register, etc.) are shown and analysed.

Finally, students are led to applicable legislation and the request form for authorization of deliberate release of a genetically modified higher plant is downloaded.

Students must fill in the request form. Students can use all information studied in previous classes and information from UE and specific country web pages and from internet in general.


Once the activity is finished, each student must submit the request of authorization filled up. Students will have one week to complete the activity and prepare the request and submit it. The evaluation will be made based on the request.

Points to evaluate:

-Design of GMO:  Clear description of recipient or parental plant, genetic modification (description of the methods used for the genetic modification, nature and source of the vector used, source (name) of donor organism(s) and intended function of each constituent fragment of the region intended for insertion, etc.), information relating to the genetically modified plant (description of the trait(s) and characteristics which have been introduced or modified, information on the sequences actually inserted/deleted, information on the expression of the insert, etc)

-Innovation in the genetic modification event

-Punctuality to apply the request


-The genetic modification event described does not necessarily need to be invented. Instead, an event previously described can be modified and used to carried out the activity.

-The web pages relating to GMOs from each UE countries can be used to develop the activity instead the UE web page.

What if it doesn't work?

This activity can be considered more or less complex, but it always works. If the computers do not work, the authorization of deliberate release of a genetically modified higher plant can be filled on paper.


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