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Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

We currently use Project-based Learning within a course entitled “Designing New Crops for the Future”, open to Montpellier SupAgro Master 1 students and Erasmus students. 

The project includes some scientific knowledge that the student needs to understand, learn, assimilate and reuse. Moreover, it  includes a specific problem to be solved through a careful planning and project execution. Personal and group guidance is applied to solve any challenge arising during the project.

Project-based learning in applied plant sciences (ESCAPAdE project)

Resources produced as a result of a project: Escapade

Group size : Small group (4-5 persons)

Modality : Presential

Duration of the teaching method : Education or training unit

Special equipment : small meeting areas, flipcharts, collaborative writing tools, tutorials and guidelines

Type of knowledge developed : Knowledge, Know-how, Social skills

Target Audience : Students, Professionals in training, Particularly suitable for heterogeneous groups, Particularly suitable for groups with cultural heterogeneity

Course Type : Tutorials (TD), Course, Practical work (TP)

Preparation time :three weeks

Author and persons who made changes : Dominique This (assistant professor), Florian Fort (assistant professor), Isabel Martin Grande (pedagogic engineer)

Why am I using this technique?

For my learners... Gesang Pratyadhiraksana (from Indonesia); Helia Kiani (from Iran); Renata Oliveira Silva (from Brazil); Begona Sanchez-Giron Carnicero (from Spain)

For me, teacher or trainer...

To improving motivational dynamics of students and as a result facilitates classroom attendance and commitment of the learners.

By mobilizing knowledge  presented during lectures to a concrete case, students can anchor more strongly  these knowledge and learn them, which is highly satisfactory for a teacher.   

Interpersonal relations with the students and research colleagues are totally different than the possibilities offered by regular lectures. I feel more like a facilitator and an animator, providing guidance, setting goals and tracking progresses rather than delivering knowledge.

As a researcher, I can share my knowledge on a particular production system, a crop or a crop protection system. I can also share my enthusiasm for plant sciences  and identify future candidate for internships or jobs. I am also building strong partnerships with higher education staff.

Framework and steps / Instructions

The framework

The teaching sequence is conceived over four weeks, each week presenting a different item, moving the project forward; In our case:

- Analyzing and predicting the effect of global changes on cropping systems and agriculture,

- Defining crop ideotypes or protection systems adapted to constraints and innovative cropping systems,

- Finding relevant methods to reach this ideotype,

- Thinking about societal and legislative challenges to be encountered.

Each project is supported by a research expert and piloted by academic staff. Some examples of projects conducted during this course are:

- “Breeding transplanted sorghum for waterlogged conditions in the extreme north of Cameroon: a participatory plant breeding approach” (by John Barth, Pauline Depoorter, Paul Duneaux and Princia Nakombo, mentored by Abdouo Aziz Saidou, CIRAD)

- “Integrated management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in European Hazelnut Orchards”, by Julia Wen, Kelvin Sage, Matheus Montrazi, Quentin Mayer, mentored by Claude Bon, USDA)

The whole course is given in English, in order to increase its international dimension. Few students and teachers are native-English speakers, therefore a minimal B1 level and clear goodwill are requested. English course are embedded within this teaching sequence, helping students encountering difficulties with the written and oral presentations.

The student is an actor in his or her learning they build their knowledge through experience within a prospective or fictive project (the development of a new cultivar, cropping system or integrated crop protection system consistent with global changes, natural resource management and innovative or traditional cropping systems).

The teacher is a facilitator, motivator and an evaluator, providing to students the latest advances within plant sciences, planning out pedagogic evaluations,  scheduling learning activities, interacting with scientific experts and involving them in in the learning process.

The research expert act as a mentor who facilitate the functioning  of the project-based approach, guiding the scientific development of the project through its expertise on the subject (crop production, cultivar development, protection system, biocontrol…), stimulating student’s motivation, evaluating the scientific relevance of the project with teachers.

The preparation

Volunteer researchers need to be identified well in advance. Their number depend on the class size (no more than 4 students per project is suitable). Availability of all pedagogic staff needs also to be checked well in advance, because of the tight schedule and precise timing of the teaching session.

Tutors need to be prepared in advance to this particular teaching activity. During a two-hours meeting, the process of project-based learning is presented, and proper attitude is discussed with them through lively activities (we want to avoid over-mentoring or over-specified projects). A last briefing of the whole pedagogic team before the course start will ensure commitment of all people.

A modular room needs to be booked for the total duration of the course (including a coffee corner…).

Specific learning material (on-line resources, student booklet, evaluation grids, progress reports model, report model, collaborative writing space) need to be prepared or updated.

The process

Because students do not know each other, an initial ice-breaker (1hour) is organized just after the initial presentation and guidelines of the course. This allows everyone to meet and initiate communication in English. Research experts then present their competences and some ideas about the project framework  (10 minutes may be sufficient for that), allowing students to choose their group as much as possible, based on their professional and personal objectives.

No more than 12 hours of lectures / visits / practical activities are given every week (in relation with the item of the week), prioritizing students’ groups workshops. We ask students to write at least three “learning points” after each lecture (to be collected each week). Short innovative teaching activities are proposed each Friday in order to remobilize academic lessons.

After discussing and defining their project, students will conduct it autonomously and deliver their product (a 12-pages report and an oral presentation) only at the very end of the course. Anyway, they are encouraged to start writing parts of their project related to each item regularly.

Each Friday, the group meets its project tutor for a debriefing time and update of the project, but other contacts through Email or visits are encouraged. Before this weekly meeting, the group write a progress report and send it to the tutor and academic supervisor.

At each time, the academic staff is present in the classroom in order to answer to any scientific / organizational question that may arise. A coffee break is highly appreciated during this Friday morning session.

Evaluation

A written report and oral defense of the project  (in front of the classmates, teachers and tutors) are used to evaluate knowledge acquisition.

An evaluation grid is provided, with an emphasis on

- project management (methodology and functioning of the group),

- quality of the students’ proposal (an accurate, operational and satisfactory answer in relation to the objectives; students’ creative force and critical mind), 

- appropriation of the knowledge from the lecture and the literature,
- quality of the presentation (a structured, logical, synthetic and complete written report; a clear speech; a judicious  selection of features exposed and relevant and accurate answers to the questions).

The whole group is accountable for this product, but in some cases a modulation of marks will be proposed, in order to acknowledge an outstanding student’s behavior or endorse the lack of involvement of a particular student. In addition the group functioning is subject to self-evaluation and to the tutors’ evaluation.

A satisfaction survey is conducted on-line at the end of the course.

Variants

A variant could be considered to take into account the lack of local academic competences (on-line material instead of lectures, regular chats with students of the academic supervisor), or lack of research specialists locally (video-meetings).

Points of vigilance

This pedagogic method involves a higher commitment  of students all along the course period. It also implies a strong involvement of the academic leader and trustworthy relationship between all actors. No student should be left alone and the teacher should take specific care of group management. The low English level of some students can also be a threat. A B2 level would be more appropriate.

What if it doesn't work?

Communication and kindness can solve many issues.


Testimonials

Users Testimonials :

This course is my favorite one. I enjoy the gentle interaction with students from all around the world and with my colleagues from Agropolis research community.

The subject (dealing with the future of Agriculture) and the concept of multidisciplinary brainstorming, although not going too far into scientific content, is initiating further in depth developments at the M2 level, while improving professional and personal skills of students.

Dominique This (assistant professor)

Learners Testimonials :

“This course open my mind about concepts, technique, and regulation to design new crop”

“New updated experiments and articles gives us a great view for what we are facing and will be face in the future”

“My favorite moment: Working on the project and feeling independent for exploring the subject, giving my own perspectives and choosing the approach with my team.”

“I learnt a lot of things on plant breeding and genetics and improved a lot in group working”

Gesang Pratyadhiraksana (from Indonesia); Helia Kiani (from Iran); Renata Oliveira Silva (from Brazil); Begona Sanchez-Giron Carnicero (from Spain)

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World coffee

It is a dynamic group work where different workshops are proposed. It mobilizes the qualities of expression (oral and written) and creativity of the participants.

World coffee

Group size : Classroom (20-30 persons), Amphitheater, large group

Modality : Presential

Duration of the teaching method : An entire session

Special equipment : A3 sheets, felt-tip pens, flipchart / board, fixed paste or scotch. Modular room

Type of knowledge developed : Social skills

Target Audience : Students, Professionals in training, Particularly suitable for groups with cultural heterogeneity, Particularly suitable for mixed groups

Course Type : Tutorials (TD)

Preparation time :Between 30 minutes and 1h, maybe more for the first time

Author and persons who made changes : Nathalie Agbagla, Laurent Tézenas

Why am I using this technique?

For my learners...

On the one hand, learners' personal knowledge and experiences are mobilized. On the other hand, this method reinforces group work.

Indeed, work is productive only if it is organized. It promotes group cohesion, listening and mobilizes the creativity of participants in a fun way. The work is dynamic and in a friendly atmosphere (food and drinks are allowed).

Moreover, continuing the work started by a previous group enriches the learners: on how to organize the knowledge on paper, the reasoning used as well as the knowledge, experiences and opinions that are shared, being confronted with other ideas, point of view...

For me, teacher or trainer...

The preparation phase of this method requires time and organization during its development.

However, the teacher/trainer plays the role of facilitator during the session, and this breaks the monotony of more traditional courses. Moreover, it removes the distance between the learner and the teacher and the session takes place in a good mood.

Framework and steps / Instructions

The framework

If knowledge needs to be mobilized, it is best to apply it in the session following the theoretical course or at the end of the module.
As part of a training course, at the end of the morning or at the end of the day.

The preparation

  • Sufficient number of A3 sheets
  • One flip chart OR A4 sheets (workshop plan)
  • A large modular room with tables and chairs OR several adjacent rooms
  • Fixed paste OR scotch
  • A painting OR a large wall

The process

PREPARATION BEFORE THE SESSION

  1. Select the themes for each workshop (a general theme addressed from different viewpoints/ways OR different sub-themes). That is, at each table, a question is submitted to the participants
  2. Divide participants into groups in a heterogeneous way (different culture, student background, professional)
  3. Print the route maps of each group with
        •    the names of the participants
        •    the order of participation in the workshops
        •    a brief reminder of the essential instructions
  4. Print the theme of each workshop OR draw a map of the workshops with their theme on the board (OR flip chart)

INSTALLATION

A single facilitator is sufficient to organize the session. The first step is to prepare the room or ask the participants to help set up the tables and chairs.

A great deal of attention must be paid to explaining the instructions at the beginning of the session. This step is essential for the proper functioning of the World Café.

Explaining also the expected purpose and why this method is being applied allows participants to better understand what is expected of them.

INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Participants are divided into groups. Groups participate in all workshops once. Each workshop is short between 10 and 15 minutes and the facilitator plays the role of time master. Once the time is up, the group moves to the next workshop, noted on their roadmap.
  2. The participants are expected to contribute their knowledge, experience and ideas in a synthetic and creative way. They must also use the feedback from groups that have previously come to the workshop, compare their ideas...
  3. All participants spoke. Good mood, friendly atmosphere and listening are the watchwords to remember.
  4. At the end of the session, each group must report the whole of the work of the workshop where it is, and this in 1 min orally.

THE UNWOUND

Once the learners have had the instructions the session can begin. 1 minute before the end of the workshop, the teacher-trainer must remind people who have not spoken that minute to do so.

Participants are often a little confused at the beginning of the exercise, then gradually learn to be effective and productive in a very short time. The final restitution: during the last rotation, the participants do not complete the work already done, or only if they consider that ideas are missing. Then they choose someone to speak. This exercise also helps to be synthetic and get to the point.

Evaluation

Debriefing can be an integral part of the World Coffee, but it all depends on the purpose of the work (to develop more in-depth knowledge, substance or rather a form of work such as group work).

It is a phase or once again, the distance between teacher and student decreases. The participants feel listened to, solicited by the person who set up the method. Their feelings, what they remember about the method, if there are things to improve and why are so much useful information.

In the case where the objective is to review more advanced knowledge, this makes it possible to synthesize all the knowledge seen, and to be able to keep these syntheses at hand (with a view to an examination for example).

Variants

  • With a rapporteur: when changing workshops, one person from each group stays on the workshop and summarizes to the arriving group what has been done. So at the beginning of the World Café, this person stays twice on the same workshop. When changing workshops, this rapporteur leaves and is replaced by a member of the group to whom he has summarized the workshop, and so on...
  • With different questions of form: video, object, photograph/image, quotation...

Points of vigilance

  • Ensure the heterogeneity of the groups (work to be done upstream),
  • Explain the instructions well at the beginning of the World Café,
  • Pay attention to the time given to participants.

What if it doesn't work?

It should show right away. No group interactions... in this case, take the time to explain again what the participants should do and what is expected of them.


Testimonials

I keep a very good memory of this exercise! It was stimulating, everyone participated, it was original to work in this way. Good mood and friendly atmosphere were there.

On the one hand, learners' personal knowledge and experiences are mobilized. On the other hand, this method reinforces group work.

Indeed, work is productive only if it is organized. It promotes group cohesion, listening and mobilizes the creativity of participants in a fun way. The work is dynamic and in a friendly atmosphere (food and drinks are allowed).

Moreover, continuing the work started by a previous group enriches the learners: on how to organize the knowledge on paper, the reasoning used as well as the knowledge, experiences and opinions that are shared, being confronted with other ideas, point of view...

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